HVAC: Heating, Ventilation & Air-Conditioning, Factors to be considered while Designing Machine, This post is part of the series: Machine Design or Mechanical Design. Development of a strawman model for analyzing the impact of various methodologies on the manufacturing environment. Scheduled output is the output expected from an operation for a given allocation of time, material, and labor; it is usually based on a published output rate. manufacturing control. Manufacturing engineering and software training programs are badly needed. Design for assembly, cost, logistics, manufacturability, reliability, and other qualities all require forethought and creativity. Die change time, which necessarily represents scheduled machine downtime, is a critical element of overall operating performance, and rapid, efficient die changing is a key basis of competition in stamping operations. Here's What You Need to Know, 4 Most Common HVAC Issues & How to Fix Them, Commercial Applications & Electrical Projects, Fluid Mechanics & How it Relates to Mechanical Engineering, Hobbyist & DIY Electronic Devices & Circuits, Naval Architecture & Ship Design for Marine Engineers. Over time, a host of little investments, each of which delivers savings in labor, material, or overhead cost, can add up to a less-thanoptimal pattern of material flow and to obsolete process technology. 2. Reliability is extremely design-sensitive. Finance-driven managers who do not understand manufactur-. The U.S. view is that “the equipment is now performing at its best and over time performance will degrade.” The Japanese view is that “the equipment is now performing at its worst and work needs to be done to improve its performance dramatically.”, Emphasis on short-term profitability at the expense of preventive maintenance programs, personnel, and spare parts actually decreases long-term profitability by increasing the frequency of catastrophic events (i.e., breakdowns that demand emergency repair). Reliability is the probability that a product will continue to work normally over a specified interval of time, under specified conditions. Current emphasis should shift from graduating applied scientists and specialists to producing engineers and interdisciplinarians. Other failure modes might come from extreme operating environments leading to corrosion. Suppliers are responding by applying microcomputer technology to more phases of manufacturing operations and processing. The term equipment reliability and maintenance (ERM) encompasses not only equipment, such as machines, tools, and fixtures, but also the technical, operational, and management activities, ranging from equipment specifications to daily operation and maintenance, required to sustain the performance of manufacturing equipment throughout its useful life. Historically, the evolution of ERM can be traced from breakdown maintenance and repair to preventive maintenance to predictive maintenance. The term artificial intelligence is appearing in sales literature that increasingly is offering catalog solutions as alternatives to technical proficiency. Breakdown maintenance and repair is the after-the-fact restoration of failed equipment. Similar results are being achieved in old as well as new factories throughout Japan. What are Machine Elements? Barriers to this vision of ERM are manifold. Given the opportunity cost of shutdown, such a system could calculate the benefit of reducing or eliminating each category of downtime. These outside suppliers of engineering services hesitate to experiment at the expense of their customers and so are unlikely to foster significant improvements. Ease and simplicity of disassembly: Like assembly, the disassembly of the machine also should be easy so as to easily carry out replacement of the parts, and repair and maintenance of the machine and machine elements. Essentially, how much stronger the system is than it usually needs to be for an intended load. Though the uncertainties involved make exact predictions impossible, designers can solve many problems based on past experience, trial and error, tests, and the like. The system was later expanded to incorporate preoutage maintenance plan-. 4. Events that slow or interrupt the manufacturing process or degrade the product impair the competitiveness of a manufacturing enterprise. Reliability:This highlights performance of product or system within a known set of parameters. National Advisory Committee on Semiconductors. Effective management of ERM requires realistic awareness of the benefits of and necessary decisions related to ERM, the technical knowledge that will permit managers to make appropriate. For example, the mouse on your computer might have a reliability of 0.990 (or 99%) over the next 1000 hours. The charter of a U.S. plant maintenance institute might include: competitive assessment of ERM (United States versus other countries), research to improve ERM competitiveness and spread best practice, assistance to companies attempting to improve ERM, ERM training assistance, a forum for technology transfer, and recognition of companies that meet predefined ERM thresholds. Development of standards for design and test, measurement and evaluation of ERM, and operator–equipment interfaces. Berkeley,CA: University of California at Berkeley, October 1980. ing operations and competitiveness can be misled by engineering and production managers who specify low rated capacities and scheduled yields. Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design Fig. Use of standard parts: There should be maximum possible standard parts in the design of the machine. Arguments that blame insufficient capacity on old machines that cannot be replaced because of high cost are suspect because the most cost-effective increase in U.S. manufacturing capacity may well be achievable through improved maintenance practices for existing equipment. Compliance with state standards: Following the standards makes designing easier and availability of various parts faster and easier. In firms whose management understands facility issues, including the implications of ERM efforts, just-in-time (JIT)1 is less a measure of inventory than an indication that all processes are under control. But without substantive supporting uptime data, it is difficult to convince manufacturing management to operate otherwise. The origins of the field of reliability engineering, at least the demand for it, can be traced back to the point at which man began to depend upon machines for his livelihood. In photolithography, attempts to increase mean time between failures have yielded a 30-percent increase in availability and an approximately 30-percent decrease in area throughput time while achieving a 10-percent reduction in total fabrication throughput time (Figure 3-5). Shafts are designed on the basis of strength or rigidity or both. Economy of repairs and maintenance: While designing the machine elements and machine the designing should be such that least amount of repairs and maintenance will be required for the machine. 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