Henry IV granted religious freedom to Protestants by issuing the Edict of Nantes during his reign as king of France, from 1589 to 1610. Améliorez sa vérifiabilité en les associant par des références à l'aide d'appels de notes. While the revolutionary government frantically raised fresh troops and reorganised its armies, a Prussian-Austrian army under Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick assembled at Coblenz on the Rhine. As king, Louis XVI focused primarily on religious freedom and foreign policy. The area where Louis XVI and later (16 October 1793) Marie Antoinette were buried, in the churchyard of St. Mary Magdaleine's, is today the "Square Louis XVI" greenspace, containing the classically self-effacing Expiatory Chapel completed in 1826 during the reign of Louis's youngest brother Charles X. Edgeworth, Louis' Irish confessor, wrote in his memoirs: The path leading to the scaffold was extremely rough and difficult to pass; the King was obliged to lean on my arm, and from the slowness with which he proceeded, I feared for a moment that his courage might fail; but what was my astonishment, when arrived at the last step, I felt that he suddenly let go my arm, and I saw him cross with a firm foot the breadth of the whole scaffold; silence, by his look alone, fifteen or twenty drums that were placed opposite to me; and in a voice so loud, that it must have been heard at the Pont Tournant, I heard him pronounce distinctly these memorable words: "I die innocent of all the crimes laid to my charge; I Pardon those who have occasioned my death; and I pray to God that the blood you are going to shed may never be visited on France. 20 000 hommes ont été déployés pour l'entourer. She was the youngest daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Francis I and Empress Maria Theresa. La légende historique attribue généralement cet acte à Santerre, mais celui-ci n'aurait fait que transmettre l'ordre du général Berruyer, commandant en second de Paris[13]. He talked of reform but resisted demands for it. On December 3 it was decided that Louis, who together with his family had been imprisoned since August, should be brought to trial for treason. Louis's indecisiveness and conservatism led some elements of the people of France to view him as a symbol of the perceived tyranny of the Ancien Régime, and his popularity deteriorated progressively. Je prie Dieu que le sang que vous allez répandre ne retombe jamais sur la France, « Vive la Nation ! Le dernier dîner du condamné lui est servi vers 19 heures. L'autel de la crypte y marque l'endroit exact où Louis XVI fut inhumé. After receiving the priest's blessing, he went to meet Antoine Joseph Santerre, Commander of the Guard. [citation needed], While Louis's blood dripped to the ground, several onlookers ran forward to dip their handkerchiefs in it. In the fall of 1791, Louis XVI tied his hopes on the dubious prospect of war with Austria in hopes that a military defeat would pave the way for a restoration of his authority. Nine months after Louis' death, his wife Marie Antoinette, herself the former queen of France met her own death at the guillotine at the same location in Paris. So, in 1776, Turgot was dismissed and Malesherbes resigned, to be replaced by Jacques Necker. 2. Most modern historians agree that Louis had no surgery[17][18][19] – for instance, as late as 1777, the Prussian envoy, Baron Goltz, reported that the King of France had definitely declined the operation. Vers 8 heures, il est interrompu par Antoine Joseph Santerre qui commande les gardes nationaux. The King had been driven to the scaffold in his own carriage and his hands were free. Je reste très convaincu qu’il avait puisé cette fermeté dans les principes de la religion dont personne plus que lui ne paraissait pénétré ni persuadé, « L'ambassade des États-Unis d'Amérique », L'existence de la lettre est attestée par, destruction des archives de Paris en 1871, Journal télévisé de 20h de France 2, 21 janvier 1993, Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen, Déclaration de guerre de la France au roi de Bohême et de Hongrie, François Alexandre Frédéric de la Rochefoucauld, Liste des personnalités de la Révolution française, https://fr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Exécution_de_Louis_XVI&oldid=175663150, Page avec coordonnées similaires sur Wikidata, Catégorie Commons avec lien local identique sur Wikidata, Portail:Révolution française/Articles liés, Portail:Époque contemporaine/Articles liés, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence. [56], The next day, a motion to grant Louis XVI reprieve from the death sentence was voted down: 310 of the deputies requested mercy, but 380 voted for the immediate execution of the death penalty. In the 1996 film Ridicule; Urbain Cancelier plays Louis. Early in 1778 he signed a formal Treaty of Alliance, and later that year France went to war with Britain. L'endroit où fut inhumé Louis XVI et plus tard Marie-Antoinette d'Autriche (16 octobre 1793) au cimetière de la Madeleine est aujourd'hui le square Louis-XVI. Louis-Auguste was overlooked by his parents who favored his older brother, Louis, duc de Bourgogne, who was regarded as bright and handsome but who died at the age of nine in 1761. "I know, that's why it is you I'm asking." Louis XVI prend place dans la voiture verte du maire, avec l'abbé et deux personnes de la milice qui s'installent face à eux. His failure to successfully address serious fiscal problems would dog him for most of his reign. Antonia Fraser's biography of the queen discusses Joseph II's letter on the matter to one of his brothers after he visited Versailles in 1777. On 21 January 1815 Louis XVI and his wife's remains were re-buried in the Basilica of Saint-Denis where in 1816 his brother, King Louis XVIII, had a funerary monument erected by Edme Gaulle. At the word 'Sire', which he had not heard for so long, Louis XVI winced, and at the same moment his confessor had addressed a few words to him from the carriage,[3] said 'So be it, then, that too, my God!' Louis Mort is on Facebook. (2010).[67]. Upon his grandfather Louis XV's death on 10 May 1774, he assumed the title King of France and Navarre, until 4 September 1791, when he received the title of King of the French until the monarchy was abolished on 21 September 1792. At that time he was still immature, lacking in self-confidence, austere in manner, and, because of a physical defect (later remedied by an operation), unable to consummate his marriage. Ultimately, they condemned him to death by a simple majority. [63], The 19th-century historian Jules Michelet attributed the restoration of the French monarchy to the sympathy that had been engendered by the execution of Louis XVI. The failure of these measures and displays of royal power is attributable to three decisive factors. Quelques Parisiens crient « Vive la Nation ! He was married to Marie Antoinette and was executed for treason by guillotine in 1793. Well-disposed toward his subjects and interested in the conduct of foreign policy, Louis had not sufficient strength of character or power of decision to combat the influence of court factions or to give the necessary support to reforming ministers, such as Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot or Jacques Necker, in their efforts to shore up the tottering finances of the ancien régime. The soldiers fled at the first sign of battle and, in one case, on 28 April 1792, murdered their general, Irish-born comte Théobald de Dillon, whom they accused of treason.[49]. In his letter, published along with its French mistakes in the Thermomètre of Thursday, 21 February 1793, Sanson emphasises that the King "bore all this with a composure and a firmness which has surprised us all. he cried, 'never!' Louise Smith era scomparsa nell’area di Leigh Park, nello Hampshire, l’8 aprile e dopo molti giorni di ricerche frenetiche il suo corpo è stato ritrovato privo di vita in un bosco non distante dalla sua abitazione. Omissions? Je prie Dieu que le sang que vous allez répandre ne retombe jamais sur la France[11]. Un economista lancia la proposta dalle colonne del tabloid più diffuso per cercare di svegliare il Paese. [8], This marriage was met with hostility from the French public. Nous psalmodiâmes les vêpres, les prières du service des morts. His mother was Marie-Josèphe of Saxony, the daughter of Frederick Augustus II of Saxony, Prince-Elector of Saxony and King of Poland. [1] Some accounts state that members of the crowd rushed towards the scaffold with handkerchiefs to dip them in his blood to keep as souvenirs. Louis XVI has been the subject of novels as well, including two of the alternate histories anthologized in If It Had Happened Otherwise (1931): "If Drouet's Cart Had Stuck" by Hilaire Belloc and "If Louis XVI Had Had an Atom of Firmness" by André Maurois, which tell very different stories but both imagine Louis surviving and still reigning in the early 19th century. Il perd son titre de roi des Français le 21 septembre 1792 à la suite de l'abolition de la royauté et accusé de haute trahison, Louis XVI est condamné à mort à la majorité lors d'un vote à plusieurs manches, se prolongeant du 15 janvier 1793 au 20 janvier 1793, à l'issue d'un procès devant la Convention nationale. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Dans le quartier de Bonne-Nouvelle, aux environs de la rue de Cléry, le baron de Batz, soutien de la famille royale qui a financé la fuite de Varennes, a convoqué 300 royalistes pour tenter de faire évader le roi déchu. Louis XVI was the last Bourbon king of France who was executed in 1793 for treason. Il se couche vers minuit et demi[1]. When Louis XVI acceded to the throne in 1774, he was nineteen years old. Je pardonne aux auteurs de ma mort. The monarchy was abolished on September 21, 1792; later Louis and his queen consort, Marie-Antoinette, were guillotined on charges of counterrevolution. Louis is recorded as having asked, on the morning of his execution, "Any news of La Pérouse?". Significant civil and political events by year, Concerning the American Revolution and Europe, Revolutionary constitutional reign, 1789–1792, Imprisonment, execution and burial, 1792–1793. Trois sont tués, mais le baron de Batz réussit à s'échapper[7]. Arnault Laporte, who was in charge of the Civil list, collaborated with both Montmorin and Mirabeau. La cugina di Louise Smith in seguito è stata scagionata e i sospetti si sono concentrati su suo marito, che ha sempre negato di essere coinvolto in questo omicidio. On 21 June 1791, Louis XVI attempted to flee secretly with his family from Paris to the royalist fortress town of Montmédy on the northeastern border of France, where he would join the émigrés and be protected by Austria. The anger of the populace boiled over on 10 August when an armed mob – with the backing of a new municipal government of Paris that came to be known as the Insurrectional Paris Commune – marched upon and invaded the Tuileries Palace. Accompagné par des roulements de tambour, l'ancien roi, assisté de l'abbé de Firmont, monte sur l'escalier et rejoint Sanson et ses quatre assistants, sur la plate-forme[9],[10]. [36], Louis XVI also encouraged major voyages of exploration. The account of Sanson states: Arriving at the foot of the guillotine, Louis XVI looked for a moment at the instruments of his execution and asked Sanson why the drums had stopped beating. "Oh, I can tell you that, Monsieur, I was there." On lui lie alors les mains dans le dos par son propre mouchoir ; un assistant de Sanson découpe son col et lui coupe les cheveux[8]. Great Britain recognized the independence of the thirteen colonies as the United States of America, and the French war ministry rebuilt its army. By the time that Louis-Auguste and Marie-Antoinette were married, the French people generally disliked the Austrian alliance, and Marie-Antoinette was seen as an unwelcome foreigner. La polizia aveva fatto sapere che la giovane era stata uccisa e ora il marito della cugina si è dichiarato colpevole di omicidio colposo. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. By this time the fundamental weakness of the king’s character had become evident. In 1780, France sent Rochambeau and Grasse to help the Americans, along with large land and naval forces. Sanson grabbed his severed head out of the receptacle into which it fell and exhibited it to the cheering crowd. L’un des assistants de Sanson présenta la tête de Louis XVI au peuple, cependant que s’élevait un immense cri de : “Vive la Nation ! There are also accounts of a blood-curdling scream issuing from Louis after the blade fell but this is unlikely, since the blade severed Louis's spine. Pour commémorer le bicentenaire de l'exécution de Louis XVI, un rassemblement de plusieurs milliers de personnes a lieu place de la Concorde, en présence de plusieurs personnalités dont l'acteur Jean-Pierre Darras qui a lu au micro le testament du roi. Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. [27][33] Suffren became the ally of Hyder Ali in the Second Anglo-Mysore War against British rule in India, in 1782–1783, fighting the British fleet along the coasts of India and Ceylon. Un tel banquet, interdit, est l'élément déclencheur de la révolution de 1848 en France[21]. Louis XVI was the third son of Louis, Dauphin of France and grandson of Louis XV of France. Louis XVI, the last king of France (1774–92) in the line of Bourbon monarchs preceding the French Revolution of 1789. 'Never!' He had an enormous responsibility, as the government was deeply in debt, and resentment of despotic monarchy was on the rise. "Dictionary of World Biography". It was clothed in a white vest and grey silk breeches with matching stockings. Louis XVI (Louis-Auguste; French pronunciation: ; 23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) was the last king of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution. Louis convened the Estates-General in an effort to solve his budget crisis, but by doing so he unwittingly sparked the French Revolution. Je pardonne aux auteurs de ma mort. [2][3] The French nobility reacted to the proposed reforms with hostility, and successfully opposed their implementation. On one hand, Louis was nowhere near as reactionary as his brothers, the comte de Provence[citation needed] and the comte d'Artois, and he repeatedly sent messages to them requesting a halt to their attempts to launch counter-coups. I remained strongly convinced that he derived this firmness from the principles of the religion by which he seemed penetrated and persuaded as no other man.". Charles-Henri Sanson, le bourreau du roi réagit à la version du Thermomètre du Jour en consignant son propre témoignage de l'exécution dans une lettre datée du 20 février 1793[17],[8] : « Arrivé au pied de la guillotine, Louis XVI considéra un instant les instruments de son supplice et demanda à Sanson si les tambours s’arrêteraient de battre. À la suite de la dénonciation de ses compagnons, seuls quelques-uns ont pu venir. L'acte de décès de Louis XVI est rédigé le 18 mars 1793. Le couperet tombe à 10 heures 22, sous les yeux notamment de cinq ministres du conseil exécutif provisoire. Marie-Antoinette, mixed-method colour print on two sheets of paper by Jean-François Janinet, print after Jean-Baptiste-André Gautier d'Agoty, 1777; in the British Museum. Joseph described the couple as "complete fumblers"; however, with his advice, Louis began to apply himself more effectively to his marital duties, and in the third week of March 1778 Marie Antoinette became pregnant. ". In 1785, he appointed La Pérouse to lead a sailing expedition around the world. Poche ore prima dell’inizio del processo, invece, si è dichiarato colpevole di omicidio colposo, come ha riportato la stampa locale. [57], On Monday, 21 January 1793, Louis XVI, at age 38, was beheaded by guillotine on the Place de la Révolution. For the 20th century philosopher Jean-François Lyotard the regicide was the starting point of all French thought, the memory of which acts as a reminder that French modernity began under the sign of a crime.[64]. Paris a alors 80 000 hommes en armes (Fédérés, Gardes nationaux, fusiliers) occupant les carrefours, les places et postés le long des rues[5]. Morti il 16 novembre. Though initially charmed by her personality, the French people eventually came to loathe Marie Antoinette, accusing her of being promiscuous and sympathetic to French enemies. © 2020 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. [21], Of these, only Armand, Ernestine and Zoe actually lived with the royal family: Jean Amilcar, along with the elder siblings of Zoe and Armand who were also formally foster children of the royal couple, simply lived on the queen's expense until her imprisonment, which proved fatal for at least Amilcar, as he was evicted from the boarding school when the fee was no longer paid, and reportedly starved to death on the street. Eventually, the royal couple became the parents of four children. Author of. He came forward to speak, but there were shouts to the executioners to get on with their work. Before the trial started and Louis mounted his defense to the convention, he told his lawyers that he knew he would be found guilty and be killed, but to prepare and act as though they could win. C'est un événement majeur de la Révolution française, et plus généralement de l'histoire de France. At the foot of the scaffold we decided to tie his hands, but less because we feared that he might defend himself than because we thought he might by an involuntary movement spoil his execution or make it more painful. On September 21, 1792, the Legislative Assembly proclaimed the First French Republic. At the same time, he encouraged the Girondin faction in the Legislative Assembly (which had succeeded the National Assembly in September 1791) in their policy of war with Austria, in the expectation that French military disaster would pave the way for the restoration of his authority. » Quelques salves d'artillerie sont tirées et certains dansent la farandole[14]. Given the overwhelming evidence of Louis's collusion with the invaders, the verdict was a foregone conclusion – with 693 deputies voting guilty, none for acquittal, with 23 abstaining. The duke then issued on 25 July a proclamation called the Brunswick Manifesto, written by Louis's émigré cousin, the Prince de Condé, declaring the intent of the Austrians and Prussians to restore the king to his full powers and to treat any person or town who opposed them as rebels to be condemned to death by martial law. [citation needed]. "[50], Two events led up to the trial for Louis XVI. On July 14, riots broke out in Paris and crowds stormed the Bastille prison in a show of defiance toward the King. [45], At the individual level, the failure of the escape plans was due to a series of misadventures, delays, misinterpretations, and poor judgments. [10] Over time, the couple became closer, though while their marriage was reportedly consummated in July 1773, it did not actually happen until 1777. Charles-Henri Sanson responded to the story by offering his own version of events in a letter dated 20 February 1793. Après une courte nuit, Louis XVI est réveillé à 5 heures par Cléry, son valet[2]. [60] Some accounts of Louis's beheading indicate that the blade did not sever his neck entirely the first time. In the end, the Legislative Assembly, supported by Louis XVI, declared war on Austria ("the King of Bohemia and Hungary") first, voting for war on 20 April 1792, after a long list of grievances was presented to it by the foreign minister, Charles François Dumouriez. France's alliance with Austria had pulled the country into the disastrous Seven Years' War, in which it was defeated by the British and the Prussians, both in Europe and in North America. The monarchy was abolished on September 21, 1792; later Louis and his queen consort, Marie-Antoinette, were guillotined on charges of counterrevolution. ", citing as its source the executioner, Charles-Henri Sanson. France and Spain planned to invade the British Isles themselves with the Armada of 1779, but the operation never went ahead. It was seen as if with the death of one came the life of the other. The argument for phimosis and a resulting operation is mostly seen to originate from Stefan Zweig's 1932 biography of Marie Antoinette. Often viewed as a turning point in both French and European history, Louis' death inspired various reactions around the world. In 1765, upon the death of his father, Louis, Dauphin of France, he became the new Dauphin. Des milliers de personnes (Scouts de France en short de cuir, jeunes filles en socquettes blanches, légitimistes à moustaches, orléanistes glabres, nostalgiques de l'Ancien Régime, gens de droite de tout poil) s'étaient rassemblés avec sono tonitruante, discours affligés et Requiem de Cherubini [initialement composé pour l'anniversaire du 21 janvier 1836]. [52] The resulting scandal served to discredit the king. Increasing tensions and violence were marked by events such as the storming of the Bastille, during which riots in Paris forced Louis to definitively recognize the legislative authority of the National Assembly. These results contradicted an earlier DNA analysis of a handkerchief dipped in the presumptive blood of Louis XVI after his execution performed by Laluez-Fo et al. Necker concealed the crisis from the public by explaining only that ordinary revenues exceeded ordinary expenses, and not mentioning the loans. » La dépouille est ensevelie dans une fosse plus profonde qu'à l'ordinaire, pour éviter les profanations et recouverte de chaux vive[15]. One questioned, "Can the King do it? arose and an artillery salute rang out which reached the ears of the imprisoned Royal family. His sister Elizabeth would follow him to the guillotine. 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Contrary to its intended purpose of strengthening Louis XVI's position against the revolutionaries, the Brunswick Manifesto had the opposite effect of greatly undermining his already highly tenuous position. Prompted by Marie-Antoinette, Louis rejected the advice of the moderate constitutionalists, led by Antoine Barnave, to faithfully implement the constitution of 1791, which he had sworn to maintain, and committed himself to a policy of subterfuge and deception.
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