While Hassan wished to build a mosque which would be second in size only to the mosque at Mecca, the government lacked funds for such a grand project. [9] The smallest contribution was 5 DH. [6], The mosque rises above the Atlantic Ocean. Around 1980, King Hassan the II commissioned the mosque because he felt that Casablanca lacked impressive and beautiful buildings and a true landmark for the city. Its minaret is the world’s tallest minaret at 210 metres (689 ft).Completed in 1993, it was designed by Michel Pinseau and built by Bouygues. For the construction of the building containing the prayer hall, the minaret and the madrasa, twelve tower cranes of 220 rpm and eight mobile cranes were installed. The adoption of this plan has been described as "a conflict between King Hassan II the ancient aristocrat and King Hassan II the contemporary leader who must develop commerce and industry in order meet the needs of his country. This is expected to enhance the building's life by 100 years. [8], The prayer hall is built to a rectangular plan of 200 metres (660 ft) length and 100 metres (330 ft)[20] width with three naves, which are perpendicular to the qibla wall. It is the largest functioning mosque in Africa and is the 7th largest in the world. This was achieved by the Science Department of the Bouygues Group, the contractors for the project, who developed an extra-strength concrete four times stronger than ordinary concrete. A masterpiece of Arab-Muslim architecture, the Hassan II Mosque is one of the most beautiful religious buildings in the world. The realization of the whole work mobilized around 10,000 workers and artisans performing more than 80 million hours of work. It showcases art pieces from various traditional Moroccan arts as well as unused architectural elements of the mosque, such as carved stucco, painted wood ceilings, and zellij walls. The Hassan II Mosque or Grande Mosquée Hassan II (Arabic: مسجد الحسن الثاني ‎; colloquially the "Casablanca Hajj") is a mosque in Casablanca, Morocco.It is the largest mosque in Morocco, the second largest in Africa, and the 5th largest in the world. The prayer hall is also illuminated by light from the glass gates on the northern wall.[21]. In the words of the authors of the book Morocco Country Study Guide, the Hassan II Mosque "undeniably marks the continuity of a modernized ancestral art and bears the sign of innovations that are due not only to technical reasons but also to a fertile exploration of new aesthetic possibilities. The doors are electrically operated. Its layout is known as the basilican plan, which is different from the common practice of a T shaped plan adopted in many North African countries. Ut elit tellus, luctus nec ullamcorper mattis, pulvinar dapibus leo. All of these works involved use of 1300 tons of special steel (with 40 tons of Mo) of 8–20 millimetres (0.31–0.79 in) bars with yield strength of 850 N per mm2. Therefore, the faithful who go there to pray, to praise the creator on firm soil, can contemplate God's sky and ocean. [citation needed] Its minaret is the world's second tallest minaret at 210 metres (689 ft). This decorative material (with chrome and green as dominant colours), is a substitute for the use of bricks, the material used in many other notable minarets, and has given the mosque an extraordinary elegance. The walls are of hand-crafted marble and the roof is retractable. Mosquée Hassan II. The construction work involved engagement of 35,000 workers and working of over 50 million hours. The building of this mosque on the Atlantic Ocean inspired by the Qur'anic verse "the throne of God was upon the water" was a pioneering idea intended to invite believers who go to this mosque to remember the greatness of God who created the sea and the sky. All of the granite, plaster, marble, wood and other materials used in the construction, were extracted from around Morocco, with the exception of some Italian white granite columns and 56 glass chandeliers. The faces of the facade have carved ornamentation with different materials. Through this architectural masterpiece, His Majesty Hassan II wanted to highlight the importance and value of the mosque among Moroccans throughout history, just as He wanted to show that this place of worship has played an important role in the promotion of authentic architectural art and the preservation of the civilizational heritage, especially since the Casablanca Hassan II mosque reflects the great talents of the Moroccan Artisan. There are stitches of roudani tracetine on a 100,000 MP surface. The Hassan II Mosque (Arabic: مسجد الحسن الثاني‎, French: Grande Mosquée Hassan II) is a mosque in Casablanca, Morocco. From the nearest train station at Casa-Port it is about a 20-minute walk to the mosque. [22] It has a laser beam fitted at the top, which is electronically operated in the evening. In the fourth phase, new exterior protection works were built using high-strength concrete with 2205 (conforming to UNS S 32205 EN 1.442 standards) stainless steel rods as reinforcements for effective erosion control. [21] This enabled the building of a taller structure with due underpinning of the foundation, while adhering to the construction schedule. The woodcarvings, the zellij work and the stucco mouldings are of elaborate and highly impressive design; the wood used for carving is cedar from the middle Atlas mountains, the marble is from Agadir and granite is brought from Tafraoute. [18], The roof is retractable, illuminating the hall with daytime sunlight and allowing worshippers to pray under the stars on clear nights. Hassan II Mosque is actually unique in its architecture and size. The building was commissioned by King Hassan II to be the most ambitious structure ever built in Morocco. When the roof is closed, the prayer hall is lit by 50 chandeliers and 8 Venetian Murano sconces. The king Hassan II Casablanca mosque is the largest mosque in Africa paper writers college interesting research topics for high school students, and the 5th largest in the world. This building was thus inaugurated on the occasion of the celebration by the Muslim world of aid al mawlid 12 Rabi I 1414 AH corresponding to August 30, 1993. For the finishing and the religious objects, craftsmen from all over the kingdom helped to cover more than 53,000 m2 of carved wood and assembled more than 10,000 m2 of zellige representing 80 original motifs. Carved or painted marble or shaped wood are used for these elegant designs, which highlight Islamic art forms. In the first phase a leak-proof coffer dam was constructed to isolate and dry the work area. Much of the financing was by public subscription. It is oriented towards Mecca, across the sea and has a range of 30 kilometres (19 mi). The formal inauguration was subsequently chosen to be the 11th Rabi' al-Awwal of the year 1414 of the Hijra, corresponding to 30 August 1993, which also marked the eve of the anniversary of Prophet Muhammad’s birth. Salt water had penetrated beyond the steel bar also into the structures. Two large breakwaters were also built, to protect the mosque from the erosive action of the ocean waves, which can be up to 10 metres (33 ft) in height. Casablanca mosque – king Hassan 2 Mosque of Casablanca. The construction works started under the effective and daily supervision of His Majesty Hassan II, who had made sure that this great building reflects the artistic specificities of authentic Moroccan architecture, while highlighting its openness to technological innovations. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); The Hassan II Mosque was built under the reign and directives of King Hassan II. On either side of the hall, there are mezzanine floors with carved dark wood furnishings, which are reserved for women. The sculpted and painted plaster was entirely worked on site by 1,500 maâlems over more than 67,000 m2. These were made from high-strength concrete with 2205 stainless steel reinforcements. Earlier in this article, under "Architecture and Fittings" it is said that the whole building is 200 m long. History of the Hassan II Mosque in Casablanca. [18] The mosque has capacity to accommodate 25,000 devotees for prayers in the main hall and another 80,000 in the plaza squares around it. This siting was accomplished by creating a platform linking a natural rock outcrop reclaimed from the sea,[7][8] where a swimming pool had previously been located. Structural deterioration in the concrete wall was observed ten years after the mosque's completion. [9], Work commenced on July 12, 1986,[13] and was conducted over a seven-year period. [21], Minaret's reflection on the Atlantic water. [19], The building blends Islamic architecture and Moroccan elements, and reflects Moorish influences, while featuring an urban design. [21] The roof is covered with cast-aluminium tiles, (similar to the Fez tiles), stronger and more reliable than traditional ceramic tiles, and about 35 percent lighter. [6] It is square in shape thrusting skyward. [4] The mosque stands on a promontory looking out to the Atlantic Ocean; worshippers can pray over the sea but there is no glass floor looking into the sea. The central hall is centrally heated, and provides spectacular underwater views of the Atlantic Ocean. Salt water migrating into the porous concrete caused the rusting of the rebar steel reinforcements resulting in expansion of the steel and causing cracking of concrete. Subject to very severe climatic constraints (swell, humidity, spray) Hassan II mosque has, despite constant maintenance, shown signs of early aging in 1998 (cracks, falling formwork panels), found the Associated Press. The Hassan II Mosque (Arabic: مسجد الحسن الثاني ‎, French: Grande Mosquée Hassan II) is a mosque in Casablanca, Morocco.It is the largest functioning mosque in Africa and is the 7th largest in the world. Cranes were also designed to suit the height of the minaret for concreting. [9] A temporary pier 800 metres (2,600 ft) in length had to be erected to protect the foundations of the pillars from the sea during the construction period. [23] Green tiles decorate the minaret for one third of the height from the top, and then changes colour to deep green or turquoise blue; it is said that in the Hassan II minaret, the designer had used his sea-foam green and God’s blue to celebrate the life of a king. King Hassan II had requested for the best of the country's artisans to come forward and submit plans for a mausoleum to honour the departed king; it should "reflect the fervor and veneration with which this illustrious man was regarded. Shorts et sans manches sont absolument interdits. There are features from an old Roman fort converted into the tomb of King Mohammed V of Rabat. At 210 metres (690 ft) in height the minaret is the second tallest minaret in the world. [21] This involved use of moly-grade stainless steel combined with high-grade concrete to make the structure resistant to chloride attack, a process that evolved during 3 years of research. La Mosquée Hassan II est un lieu de culte et de recueillement, et afin que les visites se déroulent dans les meilleures conditions, vous êtes priés de vous conformer aux règles suivantes : Portez des habits qui couvrent les épaules, le torse et arrivent en dessous des genoux. [2][3] Completed in 1993, it was designed by Michel Pinseau under the guidance of King Hassan II and built by Moroccan artisans from all over the kingdom. Last edited on 10 November 2020, at 23:26, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hassan_II_Mosque&oldid=988083014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 105,000 (25,000 indoors, additional 80,000 on Mosque's grounds), This page was last edited on 10 November 2020, at 23:26. I want to build this mosque on the water, because God's throne is on the water. [14] Twelve million people donated to the cause, with a receipt and certificate given to every donor. 01.06.2019 . In addition to public donations and those from business establishments and Arab countries (such as Kuwait and Saudi Arabia), western countries provided construction loans, which Morocco repaid.[4]. His late Majesty Hassan II, may God rest his soul, laid the foundation stone of this mosque on 5 Dou Al Kiida 1406 of the Hegira, corresponding to July 11, 1986. To build the minaret, a crane with a record height of 210 m was installed. [13] It weighs 1100 tons and can be opened in five minutes; it measures 60 metres (200 ft) high, with an area of 3,400 square metres (37,000 sq ft). Construction was scheduled to be completed in 1989 ready for Hassan II's 60th birthday. - Mosquée Hassan 2 Geometrically shaped polychromatic zellji with carved plaster are noted with floral and geometric designs with epigraphy. glazed traditional from Fez but four times lighter. The historical context of the mosque began with the death of King Mohammed V in 1961. [9], Construction costs, estimated to be about 585 million euro, were an issue of debate in Morocco, a lower mid-income country. 10,000 artists and craftsmen participated in building and beautifying the mosque. The entire work was done at a cost of 50 million euros. If you want to keep up to date with news and important events concerning the Hassan II mosque foundation, Boulevard de Tiznit, Casablanca, Grand Casablanca, Casablanca 20000, Maroc. [21] The works were carried out in four phases. The exterior surfaces of the mosque display titanium, bronze, and granite finishes. [11] Six thousand traditional Moroccan artisans worked for five years to create the abundant and beautiful mosaics, stone and marble floors and columns, sculpted plaster moldings, and carved and painted wood ceilings. [2] However, the building was not completed on schedule which delayed inauguration. [12] It displays elements found in other Moroccan buildings such as the unfinished mosque in Rabat and the Koutoubia Mosque in Marrakesh. The minaret is said to enhance the visual alignment of the boulevard. At the same time, he wanted to create a mausoleum to commemorate the late King Mohamed V. The mosque was … The building is built partially on land and partially over the ocean. [3], The mosque is located at Bd Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdallah in Casablanca. Other elements come from the Tour Hassan Mosque, the Dome of the Rock (also known as Qubbat al Sakhra 688–692 AD), the Great Mosque of Madina (705–710 AD), Kairouan Mosque in Tunisia (663 AD), the Great Mosque of Damascus (705–715 AD), the Great Mosque of Cordoba (785–786 AD), Quarawiyyin Mosque (956 and 1135 AD) in Morocco, the Great Mosque of Tlemcen (1136), and Djamaa el Kebir (1096). [16] Tadelakt, a plastering technique which adds egg yolks and black soap into mixed plaster, was used in the hammam baths. [21] This was explained as being due to exposure to the salt water of the Atlantic Ocean, into which nearly half of the mosque’s foundation projects. Covering the roof required the installation of 300,000 specially made cast aluminum tiles by the Bouygues group teams led by Aldo Carbonaro (project director) and Abdelatif Haboubi (site manager), imitating the terracotta tile. Masjid Al-Hassan Thani, Masjid Hassan Thani, Masjid Sultan Hassan II Casablanca, Morocco 33°36′26.4″N 7°37′57.2″W Islam Mosque 1986 1993 King Hassan II King of Morocco Largest in the country Moorish French architect Michel Pinseau 90000m² 1 1 210m (689 ft) 105,000 The central nave of the hall is 40 metres (130 ft) and larger than the side naves which are 27 metres (89 ft) high. The minaret is 60 stories high topped by a laser, the light from which is directed towards Mecca. It is so large that it can easily accommodate the house of the Notre Dame of Paris or St Peter's of Rome. Hassan II Mosque is actually unique in its architecture and size. The garden around the mosque is well tended and is a popular location for family picnics. [5] The 9-hectare (22-acre) complex nestles between the harbor and the El Hank lighthouse. The marble and granite coverings of Moroccan origin represent 50 hectares of area with an average thickness of 14 cm. Its minaret is the world's tallest at 210 metres (689 ft). The story around the Hassan II Mosque is quite impressive. Stay connected! Notable architectural features include the conspicuous columns, the horseshoe arches, and the innumerable muqarnas embellishing the ceilings. The cedar wood domes were fixed to frames made with 971 t of stainless steel and suspended from the reinforced concrete structure. "[12] In 1980, during his birthday celebrations, Hassan II had made his ambitions very clear for creating a single landmark monument in Casablanca by stating:[3]. Expression of the symbiosis between a king and his people, the realization of this prestigious monument was financed thanks to the participation of all the Moroccan people who voluntarily answered the Royal call, each according to his means and his generosity . Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. The traditionally designed madrasa occupies an area of 4,840 square metres (52,100 sq ft) including the basement. [17] A particular feature in the mosque is that all structures are made of reinforced cement concrete and all decorations are of traditional Moroccan design. A minaret with a height of 200m; A prayer hall with a surface of 2 hectares ; Laser with a range of 30km headed towards Mecca; Visit the mosque; Discover the museum; Cultural Program; News. [9] It was designed by the French architect Michel Pinseau who had lived in Morocco, and was constructed by the civil engineering group Bouygues. "[15] The building dimensions are 200 metres (660 ft) in length and 100 metres (330 ft) in width. Two stories in height, it is constructed in a semi-circular shape, with abutting qibla wall and the mihrab section. Even though the many structural changes were made as per detailed design, still during execution of works, 100 external pillars, called “combs” because of their wave breaking characteristics, were exposed to salt water and wave action and had to be replaced with new pillars. [10] Its environmental advantage is that it is free of noise and pollution and receives a fresh breeze from the sea.[4]. Apart from the mosque, other structures in the area are a madrasa (Islamic school), hammams (bathhouses), a museum on Moroccan history, conference halls, and a very large library said to be the "most comprehensive in the Islamic world. Since the mosque is located on the shores of the Atlantic Ocean, the foundations required 26,000 m of concrete and 60,000 m of riprap in order to combat the effects of the swell. [5] The ablution room and a vast public hammam are in the basement, with its own entrance. In the third phase, the structural slabs and pillars on the exterior part of mosque exposed to the sea were demolished; 6,000 cubic metres (210,000 cu ft) of concrete was removed. Planned on the site of the former municipal swimming pool, its construction began on July 12, 1986 and its inauguration took place on August 30, 1993, after seven years of work. The gates are embellished with marble bars which have faux voussoirs (alternately smooth or sculpted). A "triptyich marble partition with open work and central window flanked by two smaller sized windows" are built on the wall of the façade. [16] It is ornamented with pale blue marble and Zellige tilework. These tiles have brought a weight gain of 65% compared to traditional tiles with much higher reliability performance. Read more + Visits Prices Change at The Complex of the Hassan Second Mosque. The idea of building a large mosque in Casablanca reflects the Royal will to provide the Casablanca metropolis with a great spiritual and civilizational monument of Morocco, giving it a harmonious urban development and allowing it to increase its radiance and influence based on faith, piety and tolerance. "[9] The 41 fountains[11] in the courtyard are all well decorated. Historical Mosquee Hassan II The Hassan II Mosque was built under the reign and directives of King Hassan II. The qibla wall is perpendicular to the naves which is said to be an unconventional layout, given that it is customary for the rows of worshipers facing Mecca to be as wide as possible rather than extend farther back (Halod and Khan 1997, 61). The base to the top width ratio of 1 to 8 (between basement and the summit) has a marble covering on the exterior with austere decoration. This necessitated an additional leak-proof dyke to be built behind the earlier one; total dyke quantity involved was 20,000 cubic metres (710,000 cu ft). [22] The concrete used for the minaret was a special high-grade type, which could perform well under severe conditions of a combined action of strong wind and seismicity.
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