8.3 mg of NEP and NPEP, respectively [55]. Physico-chemical parameters such as moisture level, total ash, ash soluble in water and values of sulfated ash were measured. Evidence of these molecular effects at the cellular level include inhibition of biofilm formation, inhibition of bacterial attachment to host ligands, and neutralisation of bacterial toxins. Plants provide a continual source of medicines for animals and humans; they have been used since ancient times in crude forms as decoctions, syrups, liniments, powders, infusions and ointments [6, 7]. Shake-flask suspension cultures of E. alata were established from internodal segment-derived callus. Phytochemical Characterization and Evaluation of the Antimicrobial, Antiproliferative and Pro-Apoptotic Potential of Ephedra alata Decne. 2, 300041 Timişoara, România, Department of Drug analysis; chemistry of the environment and food, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Victor Babeş“, Eftimie Murgu Square, No. Shanidar IV, a Neanderthal flower burial in northern Iraq. The pharmacological studies revealed that the plant possessed cytotoxic, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, smooth muscle relaxant, hypotensive effect and decrease intraocular pressure, gastro-protective, nephro-protective, hepato-protective, cardio-protective antidepressant memory enhancement, anti-inflammatory, reproductive, wound healing and hear induction and many other effects. Today's Questions Devoting entire chapters to the most influential herbal remedies, the text either endorses or debunks popular conceptions with pure scientific data. those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publisher and the editor(s). A. Sales of supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids (ephedra) prohibited. The total amount of alkaloids isolated from Ephedra alata aerial parts was 0.2-0.22%. Ephedra nevadensis, grows wild in the American Southwest and is widely called Mormon tea. 1996;60:679-686. J Integr Med. The phytochemical analysis of Dolichos lablab showed that it contained sugar, alcohols, phenols, steroids, essential oils, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, coumarins, terpenoids, pigments, glycosides, anthnanoids, wide range of minerals and many other metabolites. Al Faateh University Faculty of Science. J Ethnopharmacol. The highest percentages of patients were with lung, breast and colorectal cancers respectively. Herbal preparation use by patients suffering from cancer in Palestine. 2015;20:1074–86. Read more. Les praticiens de médecine traditionnelle peuvent cependant employer l’éphédra pour leurs patients dans le cadre d’un traitement personnalisé. A New Highlight of Ephedra alata Decne Properties as Potential Adjuvant in Combination with Cisplatin to Induce Cell Death of 4T1 Breast Cancer Cells In Vitro and In Vivo Article Full-text available This study is important to preserve the knowledge of medicinal plants used by the people of the West Bank regions. myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident [71]. J Sex Marital Ther. Fulminant exacerbation of autoimmune hepatitis after the use of ma huang. Phytochemical Characterization and Evaluation of the Antimicrobial, Antiproliferative and Pro-Apoptotic Potential of Ephedra alata Decne. Booker A, Johnston D, Heinrich M. Value chains of herbal medicines—Research needs and key challenges in the context of ethnopharmacology. With this in mind, we’ve put in place many new procedures, including a limited visitor policy. The su- spension cultures were treated with two biotic elicitors, namely Aspergillus niger and yeast extract, to enhance the synthesis of ephedrine – the bioactive constituent of E. alata. BMC Complement Altern Med 16, 93 (2016). It is a pharmaceutically important plant, which belongs to the Ephedraceae family of gymnosperms and is known to have a number of medicinal properties. // End -->. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of Ephedra alata indicated the presence of cardiac glycosides, reducing sugars, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and alkaloids. J Ethnopharmacol. Content versus label claims in ephedra-containing dietary supplements. 2005;19. More than half of all cancers and cancer deaths occurred in less developed countries, and these proportions may be further increased [18–20]. Previous pharmacological studies revealed that Ephedra species possessed antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective and cardiovascular effects. The Fic is calculated as in the following equation: Where Nur is the number of use citations in each category and Nt is the number of taxa used. The least MIC was recorded against Trichophyton mentagrophytes which was l.5 µg/ml, while the highest MIC was recorded against Cladosporium cladosporoides which was 6.2 µg/ml. Users of this Web site should not rely on information provided on this Web site for their own health problems. Medicinal plants possessed antibacterial activities via many mechanisms, such as disruption of cytoplasmic membrane, inhibition of cell wall synthesis, inhibition of cell membrane synthesis, inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis, inhibition of energy metabolism, as well as inhibition of bacterial virulence factors, including quorum-sensing signal receptors, enzymes and toxins. All rights reserved. The newer asthma drugs are much safer and easier to tolerate. A medicinal use was accepted as valid only if it was mentioned by at least three independent herbal practitioners. These mechanisms of action cause bronchial smooth muscle relaxation, increases in heart rate and blood pressure, variable peripheral vasculature constriction and dilation, general feelings of emotional and/or psychological arousal and increased alertness, and an accelerated metabolic rate. PubMed  ephedrine occured somewhat more slowly and lasted, about ten times longer. Google Scholar. Coronary artery aneurysm and thrombosis following chronic ephedra use. Seeds ovoid, acuminate" (Sherif and El-Taife 1986). © 2020 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. This study was not funded by any institution. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 2017; 7(2): A review. The various species of Ephedra are widespread in many lands, native to southwestern North America, southern Europe, northern Africa, southwest and central Asia, northern China and western South America. 1994;18:99-103. Borum ML. Mayo Clin Proc. Physicians' Desk Reference For Herbal Medicines. 2019. Anxiety, hypertension, heart disease, glaucoma, prostate enlargement, hyperthyroidism. Science. 2010;1391–9. Medscape Medical News. Health Aff. This review will highligh the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Fagopyrum esculentum. or All content in this area was uploaded by Ali Esmail Al-Snafi on Mar 10, 2017, IAJPS 2017, 4 (02), 399-406 Ali Esmail Al-Snafi ISSN 2349-7750. Obes Res. Lung cancer was the most common type of cancer treated with these plants and Ephedra alata was the most commonly used plant for treatment of cancer in Palestine. The methods of preparation were decoctions (boiling the plants parts in water), infusions (steeping the plants in water for limited time), syrup (boiling the plants with water and sugar (1:1), creams (mixing the plant powders with goat fat or lanolin), paste, fresh juice, ingested entire plant, powder and vapor inhalations. Keep in mind that participants were screened prior to the study and were eliminated if they had high blood pressure or any other serious disease, or if they used medications or illegal drugs that might interact with stimulants. Health-related information changes frequently and therefore information contained on this Web site may be outdated, incomplete or incorrect. Rosangkima G, Prasad S. Antitumour activity of some plants from Meghalaya and Mizoram against murine ascites Dalton’s lymphoma. 1:151. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. 2010;81:462–71. ), Benefits have also been seen in smaller studies using herbal sources of ephedrine.9. Correspondence to United States Department of Health and Human Services. Also, it is of significance to utilize new therapeutic natural plant products in various treatments of diseases. 1975;190:880–1. Ephedra species contain alkaloids ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, norephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, methylephedrine, and methylpseudoephedrine. theYear = (new Date()).getYear(); The combination appears to produce synergistic effects, with appetite suppression probably the most important overall factor. B. N Engl J Med. JAMA. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Safety and efficacy of treatment with an ephedrine/caffeine mixture. At that point, the dosage was gradually reduced, and the difference between the groups declined. ash content) under storage conditions [57]. Arch Exp Veterinar Med 1990; 44: 389. combination and dexfenfluramine in the treatment of. 2004;42:981–8. volume 16, Article number: 93 (2016) Neither ephedrine nor caffeine alone produced any benefit. Interviews were conducted in the Arabic language of the informants. 2297. rats. were 0.04-0.2%. Even a single dose of an ephedra containing supplement can cause dangerous increases in blood pressure and effects on heart function. The current paper reviewed the chemical constituents, nutritional and pharmacological importance of Ficus carica. 2006;3:229–35. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Botanique ser. Simoben C, Ibezim A, Ntie-Kang F, Nwodo J, Lifongo L. Exploring Cancer Therapeutics with Natural Products from African Medicinal Plants, Part I: Xanthones, Quinones, Steroids, Coumarins, Phenolics and other Classes of Compounds. purposes, especially venereal diseases [25-26]. Last reviewed September 2014 by EBSCO CAM Review Board. The FDA banned the sales of ephedra-containing dietary supplements and consumers are urged not to use these products (12) (13) as they pose significant health risks (6). The main problem is destructive harvesting of the subterranean parts of the medicinal plants, or even the entire plant. Hydroalcoholic Extract against the MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cell Line. CA Cancer J Clin. Phenolic compounds included chlorogenic acid, rutin, catechin, quercetin, coumaric acid, flavonoid (Vicenin II, lucenin III, kaempferol 3-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-rhamnoside, herbacetin 7-glucoside, herbacetin 8-methyl ether 3-O-glucoside-7-O-rutinoside and herbacetin 7-O-6″-quinylglucoside) and furanofuran ((±)-syringaresinol, digalloylglucose, nilocitin, p-coumaric acid) were isolated from Ephedra alata. Accessed: October 30, 2007. Ethnobotanical survey of traditional medicinal plants in Tehuledere district, South Wollo. Friedman J, Yaniv Z, Dafni A, Palewitch D. A preliminary classification of the healing potential of medicinal plants, based on a rational analysis of an ethnopharmacological field survey among Bedouins in the Negev Desert. Integrative oncology in the Middle East: from traditional herbal knowledge to contemporary cancer care. Herbal products containing ephedra caused the majority (64%) of reported adverse effects from herbs in the US. These alkaloids can be used as decongestants because they constrict peripheral blood vessels, but in high doses, they also raise blood pressure (1) (2) (3). At 12 weeks after quitting smoking, individuals taking ephedrine and caffeine had gained significantly less weight. Decoctions and infusions were the most frequently used methods of preparation as presented in Fig. ephedrine hydrochloride improved internal sphincter. Pharmacognosy: Science of natural products in drug discovery. conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève 2011. thesis. In fact these areas are geographically close to each other (Fig. Areas visited included all regions of the West Bank/Palestine; Nablus, Jenin, Tubas, Toulkarm, Salfeit, Qalqilya, Ramallah, Jericho, Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Hebron (Fig. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-016-1070-8, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-016-1070-8. Any questions regarding your own health should be addressed to your own physician or other healthcare provider. The Fic was high for all the plants; Fl was 100 % for many plants, the highest UV (0.72) was for Ephedra alata. Ethnopharmacological survey of herbal remedies used for treatment of various types of cancer and their methods of preparations in the West Bank-Palestine. The highest one (40.74 %) was for liver cancer. Fl was 100 % for many plants; the highest UV (0.72) was for Ephedra alata. We do not recommend using herbal sources of ephedrine, which are now banned, for weight loss at all. Cuny: Feminist Press; 2010. Ethiopia J Med Plants Res. The previous studies revealed that Equisetum arvense contained alkaloids, carbohydrate, proteins and amino acids, phytosterols, saponins, sterols, ascorbic acid, silicic acid, phenol , tannin, flavonoids, triterpenoids, volatile oils and many other biological active constituents. etc. 2000;24:1573-1578. Am J Gastroenterol. hypertension, thyroid disease, impaired circulation of, - A review. Plants have been the primary source of medicines since life on earth; more than 50 % of existing cancer treatments are derived from plants. As noted above, there is no ready way to be sure of the dose of the determined by using rutin reference standard method, equivalent/g of extract powder) , while in. Intake of ephedrine exposes the user to unacceptable negative side effects, including mood disturbances, abnormal heart function, hypertension, gastrointestinal dysfunction and headache, while providing small amounts of added weight loss and/or central nervous system stimulation. The same consideration can be raised for Arum palaestinum which was reported to treat four different cancers (Liver, colon, kidney and breast). Japanese chemists isolated ephedrine from ma huang at the turn of the century, and it soon became a primary treatment for asthma in the United States and abroad. J Ethnopharmacol. J Ethnopharmacol. Use of herbal ephedra, as opposed to ephedrine, may present additional dangers. 2000;56:424-430. Yesilada E. Contribution of traditional medicine in the healthcare system of the Middle East. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 2000; 6: 48, Microbiology Research Vol. Accordingly, three Fl values were calculated. Ghorbani A. Theoharides TC. Ab initio calculations of. Recently, the use of natural herbal products is increasing in both developed and developing countries due to many reasons [33, 34]. Ann Onco. contents was 28.0± 0.0 mg/g dry weight [48]. Saad B, Azaizeh H, Said O. For the whole 6 months of the trial, the treatment group maintained the same relative weight-loss advantage over the placebo group. Comparison of an ephedrine/caffeine combination and dexfenfluramine in the treatment of obesity. Complementary medicine use among cancer patients receiving radiotherapy and chemotherapy: methods, sources of information and the need for counselling. It has been widely promoted as a natural stimulant and as an appetite suppressant. It is commonly consumed in low doses and in combination with other herbs to promote urination, to treat asthma, bronchitis and coughs. 9- Cytotoxic effects of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine: possessed the same myometrial and urinary bladder. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. Find support for a specific problem on the support section of our website. Studies indicate that ephedra also has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and uterine stimulatory activities (9). All were placed on a weight-loss diet. Where additional assistance is needed in body fat reduction, individuals should consult a registered dietitian or their physician. Edited by Christopher J. Earle In the US, supplements containing ephedra have been banned since 2004 due to safety issues. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/I, http://www.gbif.org/species/2653400 /synonyms. statement and weight loss We use cookies on our website to ensure you get the best experience. Int J Cancer. Acute hepatitis associated with the use of a Chinese herbal product, ma-huang. Ephedra alata, Arum dioscoridis, Arum palaestinum were the most commonly used medicinal plants for treatment of cancer and all of these three plants were prepared as decoctions. Box 7, Nablus, Palestine, Nidal Amin Jaradat, Rowa Al-Ramahi, Abdel Naser Zaid, Ola Ibrahim Ayesh & Ahmad Mustafa Eid, You can also search for this author in Previous studies showed that Dalbergia sissoo exerted antimicrobial, neural, cardiac, antioxidant, antiparasitic,antidiabetic,anti-inflammatory,analgesic, Osteogenic, dermatological, gastrointestinal, reproductive and many other effects. 2000;57:963-969. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. This review discussed the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Ephedra alata and Ephedra foliata. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. The most common cancer type treated with herbal remedies was lung cancer followed by liver, skin, colon and breast cancers as reported in (Fig. Conclusion: Cinnamomi Ramulus combined with Ephedrae Herba has the propertis of delaying the distribution process of E and PE, reducing the cumulative distribution volume, and accelerating the elimination of E and PE in the brain tissues of mice. CA Cancer J Clin. Complement Ther Clin Pract. The FDA banned the sales of ephedra-containing dietary supplements as they pose significant health risks. Boozer CN, Nasser JA, Heymsfield SB, et al. The results showed that the ephedrine/caffeine treatment significantly enhanced weight loss, resulting in a loss of more than 36 pounds as compared to only 29 pounds in the placebo group, a 7-pound difference. SSRI family (eg, Prozac).32 Eur J Cancer Care. In addition, compounds high in ephedrine, such as over-the-counter medications to treat sinus congestion or symptoms of the common cold, can be and are used to synthesize the illegal drug metamphetamine. Springer Nature. Medicinal plants utilized in indigenous health traditional system are gradually becoming wiped out due to over utilization, human overpopulation and from other human impact on the environment. Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, An-Najah National University, P.O. Bioimpacts. Memorial Sloan Kettering does not record specific website user information and does not contact users of this website. T, as epinephrine but was less potent and has a longer, asystole, an initial dose of about 8 mg of ephedrine, ephedrine. Fidelity level (Fl) was defined as the ratio between the number of informants who independently suggested the use of a species for the same major purpose and the total number of informants who mentioned the plant for any use. Effects of ephedra on autonomic nervous modulation in healthy young adults. The study aims, protocols and the informed consent forms were approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at An-Najah National University (IRB archived number 25/Jan/ 2015). Jaradat N. Ethnopharmacological survey of natural products in palestine. Ephedra alata Decne. For adults, no more than 25 mg should be taken at one time, and a total daily intake of 100 mg should not be exceeded.12 However, a survey of ephedra-containing dietary supplements found that ephedrine content as listed on the label was frequently incorrect.13 Side effects of adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. In recent time, people in both developed and developing countries utilize herbal medicines for improving their health [10–12]. This method is an effective and easy option of data collection. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/I, 33.Miller AG and Morris M. Ethnoflora of, de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 1-449. The first double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study in adolescents. J Appl Environ Biol Sci 2011; 1(8)158, Annales des Sciences et Technologie 2014; 6(1): 4. Academic Editors: Natália Martins and Gertjan van Dijk, Received: 21 November 2018 / Revised: 12 December 2018 / Accepted: 19 December 2018 / Published: 20 December 2018, (This article belongs to the Special Issue, This is an open access article distributed under the, Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. Fagopyrum esculentum contained alkaloids, amino acids, anthraquinones, carbohydrates, flavonoids, phlobatannins and tannins. Final rule declaring dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids adulterated because they present an unreasonable risk. Female branch. J Clin Psychopharmacol. Evidence suggests that ephedrine/caffeine combinations can aid Arch Gen Psychiatry. herb ephedra, creating potential risk of overdosage. The safety of ephedra for use during pregnancy has not been established. 2010;130(3):563-568. WHO also estimates a substantive increase up to nineteen million new cases of cancer per year by 2025, due to the growth of global population. South Africa Curr Sci. This study showed that many herbal remedies are still used by herbalists in Palestine for treatment of cancer; some of them have been approved scientifically while others are not. PE with time was determined by GC-MS method. heart attack 1992;16:269-277. These authors contribute equally to this work. The roots were used as aphrodisiac (1, 3-4). Samenuk D, Link M, Homoud M K, et al. Israel Academy of Sciences: Jerusalem; 1999. Chemistry Research Journal. The extract possessed antifungal activity against all the tested fungi. Paris: Lechevalier. One of the essential medicinal plants belonging to the Fabaceae family is Abrus precatorius. Evid-Based Compl Alt Med. Frequency of the used parts of medicinal plants in cancer treatment. Female cone showing the membranous, winged bract. The type is from N Africa (Sherif and El-Taife 1986). Clinical and experimental studies on polyherbal formulations for diabetes: current status and future prospective. Medicinal plants in Mexico: Healers' consensus and cultural importance. A questionnaire was distributed to one hundred and fifty herbalists, traditional healers and rural dwellers. Although it can still be found in a few over-the-counter drugs for The current review highlights the chemical constituents, nutritional and pharmacological effects of Daucus carota. Male strobili solitary or 2, The preliminary phytochemical analyses, maximum ephedrine obtained from callus reached 14. ephedrine accumulation in callus cultures [40]. The other factors to be considered are the harvesting time of the herb (collection time), the soil, the climate conditions, and the method of drying, processing, and extraction [37, 38]. B. False-positive RIA for methamphetamine following ingestion of an ephedra-derived herbal product. Astrup A, Breum L, Toubro S. Pharmacological and clinical studies of ephedrine and other thermogenic agonists. Ali-Shtayeh MS, Jamous RM. Cytotoxicity assessment of Ma-huang (Ephedra) under different conditions of preparation. as well as the evidence described above, ephedra should definitely not be taken by a person with: Furthermore, one should never combine ephedra with monoamine-oxidase inhibitors (MAO inhibitors), such as Nardil (phenelzine), or fatal reactions may develop. Phytochem Rev. Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. Beside the E-type alkaloids, ephedroxane, and macrocyclic spermidines called ephedradine AD , were isolated from some Ephedra species. Powell T, Hsu FF, Turk J, Hruska K. Ma-huang strikes again: ephedrine nephrolithiasis. Safety Issues.). CAS  Ephedrine production from suspension cultures of Ephedra alata L. callus, Phenolics and flavonoids contents of medicinal plants, as natural ingredients for many therapeutic purposes- A review, Antibacterial effect of the phenolic extract of Alhagi maurorum, Medicinal plants possessed hepatoprotective activity, Antifungal effect of Alhagi maurorum phenolic extract, Iraqi Medicinal Plants with Antibacterial Effect-A Review, STANDARDIZATION AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING ACTIVITY OF Abrus Precatorius Linn ROOT EXTRACTS, Antibacterial effects of Medicinal Plants, HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND NEPHROPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF TURMERIC (CURCUMA LONGA) IN RIFAMPICIN AND ISONIAZID-INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY AND NEPHROTOXICITY IN RATS, A review on Fagopyrum esculentum: A potential medicinal plant, Nutritional and pharmacological importance of Ficus carica -A review, Pharmacology and therapeutic potential of Euphorbia hirta (Syn: Euphorbia pilulifera)-A review, Nutritional and therapeutic importance of Daucus carota-A review, Medical importance of Datura fastuosa (syn: Datura metel) and Datura stramonium -A review, Chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Dalbergia sissoo -A review, The pharmacology of Equisetum arvense-A review, The pharmacology and medical importance of Dolichos lablab (Lablab purpureus)-A review, A review on Dodonaea viscosa: A potential medicinal plant. 1996;91:1436-1438. 1986;16:275–87. There is some evidence, though, that counters this claim of cardiovascular risk. The total phenolic content was highest in the methanolic extract (47.62 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract powder), while in ethanolic extract, the total phenolic content was 19.175 mg GAE/g of extract powder. Today, the main importance of Ephedra species in the medical field is due to the presence of the alkaloids derived from phenyl-alanine, which act on the sympathetic nervous system as a sympathomimetic. No association between reported adverse events and ephedra when consumed as directed. 2012;23:211–21. In a previous study from Palestine, 60.9 % of cancer patients reported using medicinal herbs [35]. 2005;17:581-584. Astrup A, Breum L, Toubro S, et al. The nutritional analysis of carrot juice showed that the juice contained: protein 1.067 ± 0.058%, crude fat 0.367 ± 0.089%, crude fibre 1.167 ± 0.153%, carbohydrates 6.100 ± 0.346%, many vitamins and minerals. Results of calculated FIC, Fl and UV are shown in Tables 2, 3 and 4. double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 180 overweight individuals were placed on a weight-loss diet and given either ephedrine/caffeine (20 mg/200 mg), ephedrine alone (20 mg), caffeine alone (200 mg), or placebo, 3 times daily for 24 weeks.6 The study was conducted in accordance with the requirements of the declarations of Helsinki. • These two species had an appreciable anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Collected information included the names of plants, the used parts, types of cancers for which these plants were used and also their methods of preparation. The FDA has banned the sales of dietary supplements that contain ephedra because of their significant risk to human health (12) (13). plants grow along the Rocky Mountains [30]. Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Victor Babeş“, Eftimie Murgu Square, No. Kipkore W, Wanjohi B, Rono H, Kigen G. A study of the medicinal plants used by the Marakwet Community in Kenya. Fauna Palaestina. Ephedra is a stimulant that has caused heart attack and stroke resulting in several deaths. 1998;32:153-159. Ephedra contains ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, which are known to stimulate the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Heinrich M, Ankli A, Frei B, Weimann C, Sticher O. The use of dietary or medicinal plant based natural compounds to disease treatment has become a unique trend in clinical research. Statements made about products have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. Lee MK, Cheng BW, Che CT, et al. University of Maryland, College Park, Eurasi J Agric & Environ Sci 2011; 11(1):19, activity and tentative identification of acti, Decne. Furthermore, individuals with underlying cardiovascular disease or other illnesses may be at more serious health risk when taking ephedrine. stroke. Pollen cones on Ephedra alata growing in Wadi Degla, Egypt (29.9386°N, 31.3665°E) [Moshira Hassan, 2008]. belongs to the Ephedraceae family. Article  Efficacy and safety of ephedra and ephedrine for weight loss and athletic performance: a meta-analysis. Indian J Exp Biol. Her symptoms resolved following treatment with antiglaucoma medications. Nonetheless, ephedrine is a potent central and peripheral nervous system stimulant, causing the stimulation of both α and β adrenergic receptors, and the release of dopamine within the brain and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) from sympathetic nerves within and external to the CNS.
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