[9] The best known lion dances are performed in Bali and Java. Parents were afraid to let their children join lion dance troupes because of the "gangster" association with the members. Instead of dancing to the sounds of flutes and drums, the Okinawan shisa dance is often performed to folk songs played with the sanshin. A bindi (Hindi: बिंदी, from Sanskrit बिन्दु bindú, meaning "point, drop, dot or small particle") is a coloured dot worn on the center of the forehead, originally by Hindus and Jains from the Indian subcontinent. [3][9] The bindi has a historical and cultural presence in the region of Greater India.[10][11]. [citation needed], Japan has a long tradition of the lion dance and the dance is known as shishi-mai (獅子舞) in Japanese. Go and start meditating, then come back a year later and tell how things have changed. During the Qing Dynasty, there may be additional hidden meanings in the performances, for example the green vegetables (qing) eaten by the lion may represent the Qing Manchus. Lion dance was recorded in the Korean historical work Samguk Sagi as "Sanye" (狻猊, the old word for lion), one of the five poems on the dances of the Silla kingdom written by Choe Chiwon. In the past, costumes more similar to the Qilin were used, but today, many tropes buy lion costumes from China, unaware of the subtle differences that set the Lion Dance and Qilin Dance apart. In the Tang court, the lion dance was called the Great Peace Music (太平樂, Taiping yue) or the Lion Dance of the Five Directions (五方師子舞) where five large lions of different colours and expressing different moods were each led and manipulated on rope by two persons, and accompanied by 140 singers. ( Public Domain ). The newer styles of Fo Shan lions replace all the bristles with fur and the tails are shorter. The dance has evolved considerably since the early days when it was performed as a skill part of Chinese martial arts, and has grown into a more artistic art that takes into accounts the lion's expression and the natural movements, as well as the development of a more elaborate acrobatic styles and skills during performances. The area between the eyebrows is believed to be the sixth chakra , known as the ajna, meaning “command,” and is believed to be the seat of concealed wisdom. It is also described as "the sacred symbol of the cosmos in its unmanifested state". There are two main styles of Southern Lion: the Fut San or Fo Shan (Chinese: 佛山; pinyin: Fóshān; lit. In Chinese cǎi (採, pluck) also sounds like cài (菜, meaning vegetable) and cái (财, meaning fortune). The mask however may sometimes have horns appearing to be a deer (shika), and shishi written with different Kanji characters can mean beast, deer or wild boar, for example as in shishi-odori (鹿踊, lit. [28] International celebrities such as Gwen Stefani, Julia Roberts,[29] Madonna,[30] Selena Gomez and many others have been seen wearing bindis. The modern dot knows no gender limits either: men as well as women can wear it. all play their beat differently. Bindis in Indonesia are usually white, rather than red or black as in India. The Chinese lion dance has close relations to kung fu or Wǔshù (武術) and the dancers are usually martial art members of the local kung fu club or school. Most images of Hindu, Jain or Buddhist divinities in meditative poses with their eyes nearly closed show the gaze focused between the eyebrows (another spot being the tip of the nose—naasikagra). There are many different lion dances in Japan and the style of dancing and design of the lion may differ by region – it is believed that as many as 9,000 variations of the dance exist in the country. [51][52] Various forms of shishi dances are also found in noh, kabuki (where the lion dances form a group of plays termed shakkyōmono, examples include Renjishi),[53][54] and bunraku theatres. Lion dance (simplified Chinese: 舞狮; traditional Chinese: 舞獅; pinyin: wǔshī) is a form of traditional dance in Chinese culture and other Asian countries in which performers mimic a lion's movements in a lion costume to bring good luck and fortune. Meanwhile, recognising the broader cultural significance of the bindi, Reclaim the Bindi suggests that all South Asians, including those who do not have Hindu heritage, may wear the bindi at their own discretion. Bindi are often used as decoration or as a style statement. They practice in their club and some train hard to master the skill as one of the disciplines of the martial art. Lion Head), often with a characteristic body of green dyed cloth with white designs. There are however also a number of local forms of lion dance in different regions of China, and some of these lions may have significantly differences in appearance, for example the Green or Hokkien Lion (青獅, Qing Shi), and the Taiwanese or Fukien Lion (明狮, Ming Shi), popular with the Hokkien people and Taiwanese people. [27] Decorative and ornamental bindis were introduced to other parts of the world by immigrants from the Indian subcontinent. The violence became so extreme that at one point the Hong Kong government banned lion dance completely. The snow lion represents the snowy mountain ranges and glaciers of Tibet and is considered highly auspicious, and it may also symbolize a number of characteristics, such as power and strength,[67] and fearlessness and joy. Lion dance has spread across the world due to the worldwide presence of the diaspora Chinese communities and immigrant settlers in many countries in the Americas, Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, Pacific Polynesia, and in particular, in South East Asia where there is a large overseas Chinese presence. Northern lions may have a gold-painted wooden head, and shaggy red and yellow hair with a red bow on its head to indicate a male lion, or a green bow (sometimes green hair) to represent a female. Traditionally, it is a bright red dot applied to the center of the forehead close to the eyebrows. The good-hearted spirit, according to popular beliefs, has the power to summon the auspicious unicorn, and thus during the dance, takes the lead in clearing the path for the unicorn. The Old Testament tells a story in which a diminutive David defeats the giant Goliath. [61] The dancers may be accompanied by musicians playing a double-headed drum, an hourglass-shaped drum, a large gong, and a six-holed bamboo flute. The lion dance costumes used in these performances can only be custom made in specialty craft shops in rural parts of Asia and have to be imported at considerable expense for most foreign countries outside Asia. The Valley of the Thracian Rulers: Hidden Beauty of the Barbarians, The Story of Kyniska: The Spartan Princess Who Became An Olympic Hero, Aztec Death Whistles Sound like Human Screams and May Have Been Used as Psychological Warfare, Remains of 4,000-Year-Old Gynecological Treatment Discovered in Egypt, Unknown Constellations And More Discovered At Egypt’s Esna Temple, Sewage Construction Uncovers Head of Greek God Hermes in Athens, The Stone Age: The First 99 Percent of Human History, Ancient Anomalous Human Skeletons: Humanity Could be Much Older Than We Think, The origins of human beings according to ancient Sumerian texts. Different types of fur may be used in modern lion. [35][36] Its body is made of durable layered cloth also trimmed with fur. He and his disciples also made changes to the lion head; its forehead is lower, its horn rounded and it has a duck beak mouth with flat lips, the body also has more eye-catching colours. [43] A court version of the dance is performed at the Duyet Thi Duong Theatre within the ground of the royal palace in Huế. But bindis can also be other colors with a sign or piece of jewelry worn upon them. The Glastonbury Giant: Who Did the Mystery Bones of A Nine Foot Skeleton Belong To? of Chinese: 禪那; pinyin: chánnà), from Sanskrit dhyāna (meaning "meditation" or "meditative state"), is a Chinese school of Mahāyāna Buddhism.It developed in China from the 6th century CE onwards, becoming dominant during the Tang and Song dynasties. In southern India a smaller red bindi is worn with a white tilak at the bottom, another common type is a red tilak shaped bindi. In Southeast Asia, bindis are worn by Balinese and Javanese Hindus of Indonesia. Messiah on Temple Mount: Are We Nearing the End of Time? ( Public Domain ). The Shakti goddess of Ajna is called Hakini. A Hindu woman wearing a red bindi. The green-faced lion represented Zhao Yun or Zhao (Cantonese: Chiu) Zi Long. All traditional Fo Shan lions have pop-up teeth, tongue, and eyes that swivel left and right. A similar marking is also worn by babies and children in China and, as in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, represents the opening of the third eye. A modern bride. It is also performed at other festivals and celebrations. The lions had to fight with stylistic lion moves instead of chaotic street fighting styles. In contrast, the tradition of men wearing the tilaka has faded in recent times – now a lot more women than men sport that decoration. Although, in the United States, jungle epics that were set in the country were shot in Hollywood as early as the 1940s. Like many other practices that have been discussed in the light of cultural rights and cultural appropriation, the answer to who can wear the bindi remains a topic of debate. Archaeology has yielded clay female figurines from the Indus Valley with red pigment on the forehead and hair parting. Feng was born in a village in He Shan county in Guangdong where he was instructed in martial arts and lion dance by his father. Bindis are also decorated on wedding brides and grooms of Java and other parts of Indonesia, even worn by non-Hindus. Apart from a red dot being an auspicious sign of marriage, it also is thought to guarantee the social status and sanctity of the institution of marriage. Deer Dance). The dancers may also reenact a lion hunt. He is credited with exceptional strength. The lion dance is seen as a representative part of Chinese culture in many overseas Chinese communities,[79] and in some South East Asian countries, there were attempts to ban or discourage the dance in order to suppress the Chinese cultural identity in those countries. The lion dance is usually performed during the Chinese New Year and other Chinese traditional, cultural and religious festivals. Aarti Olivia suggests that a non-South Asian may wear a bindi if they are either getting married to a South Asian, or attending an Indian festival or ritual. [30] The Qilin dance is also most commonly performed by the Hakka people who were originally from northern China, but have largely settled in the south of China and southeast Asia in modern times.[31][32]. Emotionally, Ajna deals with clarity on an intuitive level. This is the Ancient Origins team, and here is our mission: “To inspire open-minded learning about our past for the betterment of our future through the sharing of research, education, and knowledge”. A man wearing a yellow bindi in Bangalore, India. The "greens" (qing) is tied together with a "red envelope" containing money and may also include auspicious fruit like oranges. These can reach 3m for normal heights, but championship poles can go up to 6m. The larger lions manipulated by two persons may be referred to as great lions (太獅), and those manipulated by one person little lions (少獅). Newer lions, however, may be made with modern materials such as aluminium instead of bamboo and are lighter. Decorative bindis have become popular among women in South Asia, regardless of religious background. [12][14][15] An alternative suggestion is therefore that the dance may have developed from a local tradition that appropriated the Buddhist symbolism of lion.[5]. However, the Islamic Research Foundation, located in India, says "wearing a bindi or mangalsutra is a sign of Hindu women. A Hindu woman with a red bindi. Did you know: The first paper money was made in China over 1,000 years ago. Some lifts and acrobatic tricks are designed for the lion to "fight" and knock over other rival lions. Was the Amazon Rainforest Once Home to A Massive Lost Civilization? The goddess Lakshmi also wears the bindi. The cinema of Kenya refers to the film industry of Kenya.Although a very small industry by western comparison, Kenya has produced or been a location for film since the early 1950s when Men Against the Sun was filmed in 1952. The black lion is considered the youngest lion, and the movement of this lion should be fast like a young child or a headstrong teenager. : 'Buddha Mountain'), and the Hok San or He Shan (simplified Chinese: 鹤山; traditional Chinese: 鶴山; pinyin: Hèshān; lit. The performers and the schools would gain praise and respect on top of the large monetary reward when they did well. The lion dance troupes are sometimes accompanied by various characters such as the Big Head Buddha. First, they apply a sticky wax paste through the empty centre of the disc. 3 Problems to Remember When Trying to Find Atlantis. [73][74] However, as lion-hunting has been made illegal, the dance is seldom performed in a real scenario nowadays, but they may continue to perform the dance for tourists.[75]. [18] Traditionally they are green in colour with a red dot in the middle. Shishi kagura may be found in different forms - for example the daikagura which is mainly acrobatic, the yamabushi kagura, a type of theatrical performance done by yamabushi ascetics,[50] and also in bangaku and others. (ellen Reitman/ CC BY SA 2.0 ). Beaver's teeth 'used to carve the oldest wooden statue in the world’, The Evidence is Cut in Stone: A Compelling Argument for Lost High Technology in Ancient Egypt, 1,200-Year-Old Telephone, Amazing Invention of the Ancient Chimu Civilization, Kilkenny Castle is Voted Among the Most Beautiful in the World. The red dot between the eyebrows is said to retain energy in the human body and control the various levels of concentration. [78] By 2001 and 2002, dragon dance teams are also involved in competitions at Genting as well. [47] The dance is commonly performed during the New Year to bring good luck and drive away evil spirits, and the lion dancers may be accompanied by flute and drum musicians. Women wore large spangles set in gold with a border of jewels if they could afford it. [8], In Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, bindi is associated with Ajna Chakra and Bindu. The name seng ge and its related forms come from Sanskrit for lion siṅha,[67] and cham is a Buddhist ritual dance. Acrobatics are very common, with stunts like lifts, or balancing on a tiered platform or on a giant ball. The lion dance (Indonesian: barong) in Indonesia has different forms that are distinct to the local cultures in Indonesia, and it is not known if these have any relation to the Chinese lion. It is worn for cultural purposes because Indonesia was once ruled by Indianized Hindu kingdoms, thus the culture still preserves until today. In a traditional performance, when the dancing lion enters a village or township, it is supposed to pay its respects first at the local temple(s), then to the ancestors at the ancestral hall, and finally through the streets to bring happiness to all the people. (Steve Evans/ CC BY 2.0 ). It is also described as "the sacred symbol of the cosmos in its unmanifested state". The winner lion would then use creative methods and martial art skills to reach the high-hanging reward. It is distinguishable from the dragon dance which is performed by many people who hold the long sinuous body of the dragon on poles. The lion masks of Pongsan and Gangnyeong may feature rolling eyes and bells meant to frighten demons when they make a sound as the lion moves. Tantric cults believe that during meditation latent energy rises from the base of the spine toward the head and the ajna is the outlet for this potent energy. It uses kung fu moves and postures to help with its movements and stances, and only the most advanced students are allowed to perform. The lion with white fur is considered to be the oldest of the lions, while the lion with golden yellow fur is the middle child. Ajna's key issues involve balancing the higher and lower selves and trusting inner guidance. They don’t hurt anyone either. A distinct dot is a popular forehead decoration worn mainly in South Asia - especially in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Mauritius. Floki and the Viking Discovery of Iceland. There has been an old tradition in China of dancers wearing masks to resemble animals or mythical beasts since antiquity, and performances described in ancient texts such as Shujing where wild beasts and phoenix danced may have been masked dances. Often called the fourth brother, this lion is also called the Heroic Lion because Zhao was said to ride through Cao Cao's million man army to rescue Liu Bei's infant and fight his way back out. We’re the only Pop Archaeology site combining scientific research with out-of-the-box perspectives. We seek to retell the story of our beginnings. In those days the lion dance was mostly practised and performed as Wushu or kung fu skills, with the challenge for the 'lion' built of chairs and tables stacked up together for the 'lion' to perform its stunts and accomplish its challenge. The champion as of 2018 is consecutive winner Kun Seng Keng from Malaysia, winners of 11 out of the 13 Genting competitions. The bindi was made and sold by lac workers known as Lakhera. Versions of lion dance related to the Chinese lion are also found in Japan, Korea, Tibet and Vietnam.
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