est de 83 600 kilomètres carrés ; le pays dispose de 750 kilomètres de côtes sur la rive arabe du golfe Arabo-Persique (avec un littoral bordé de plus de 200 îles) et de 75 kilomètres de côtes sur la mer d’Oman, situées au sud de la presqu’île de Ras Musandam, qui appartient à Oman. This arrangement ended with independence and the establishment of the United Arab Emirates on 2 December 1971 following the British withdrawal from its treaty obligations. Undergraduate : Admission", "Middle East :: United Arab Emirates – The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency", Government portal of the United Arab Emirates, World Bank Summary Trade Statistics United Arab Emirates, Timeline of the United Arab Emirates History from Bronze Age to present day, Union of Arab National Olympic Committees, Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=United_Arab_Emirates&oldid=989122862, Arabic-speaking countries and territories, Member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council, Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, States and territories established in 1971, 1971 establishments in the United Arab Emirates, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the flag caption or type parameters, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2019, Articles with disputed statements from January 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Meanwhile, Saudi Arabia laid claim to swathes of Abu Dhabi.[60]. The President and Prime Minister are elected by the Federal Supreme Council. Known as Magan to the Sumerians, the area was home to a Bronze Age trading culture during the Umm Al Nar period which traded between the Indus Valley, Bahrain and Mesopotamia as well as Iran, Bactria and the Levant. [272] There are many documented cases of Egyptians and other foreign nationals who had spent years working in the UAE and were then given only a few days to leave the country. About twenty non-political groups operate on the territory without registration. [99] The UAE's Council of Ministers (Arabic: مجلس الوزراء‎) is the chief executive branch of the government presided over by the Prime Minister. Le désert est omniprésent (4/5e du territoire) et limite l’expansion des capitales essaimées sur la plaine littorale composée de steppes et d’étendues plus ou moins marécageuses (sebkhas). [138] The UAE also backed Saudi Arabia's statement about the death of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi. [69] In January 2006, Sheikh Maktoum bin Rashid Al Maktoum, the prime minister of the UAE and the ruler of Dubai, died, and Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum assumed both roles. Originally intended to be part of the proposed Federation of Arab Emirates, Bahrain became independent in August, and Qatar in September 1971. Prior to the bid, he was accused of being responsible for the torture of a British academic. [61] On 2 December 1971, at the Dubai Guesthouse (now known as Union House) six of the emirates (Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Sharjah and Umm Al Quwain) agreed to enter into a union called the United Arab Emirates. [273] Human rights organizations have spoken out against the secrecy of the trial. Half are appointed by the rulers of the constituent emirates, and the other half are elected. 4, Foreign relations of the United Arab Emirates, Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries, Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie, Israel–United Arab Emirates peace agreement, List of cities in the United Arab Emirates, Migrant workers in the United Arab Emirates, tallest human-made structure in the world, Prime Minister Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, busiest airport in the world by international passenger traffic, Emirates Integrated Telecommunications Company, list of museums in the United Arab Emirates, United Arab Emirates Football Association, Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf, Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, List of United Arab Emirates-related topics, "GINI index (World Bank estimate) – United Arab Emirates", "The Federal Boundaries of the United Arab Emirates", "United Arab Emirates's Constitution of 1971 with Amendments through 2004", Call to naturalise some expats stirs anxiety in the UAE, "Labor Migration in the United Arab Emirates: Challenges and Responses", "Production of Crude Oil including Lease Condensate 2016", "Dubai International is world's busiest airport", "The UAE and Egypt's New Frontier in Libya", "UAE archaeologist discovers the Swiss Army knife from 130,000 years ago", "Abu Dhabi Islands Archaeological Survey (ADIAS)", "Ancient secrets of Sir Bani Yas unveiled", "November 3, 2008 – The UAE is the old Pirate Coast. [397], The introduction of mandatory health insurance in Abu Dhabi for expatriates and their dependants was a driver in reform of healthcare policy. [116] Pakistan was the first country to formally recognize the UAE upon its formation and continues to be one of its major economic and trading partners. [215][216][217][218][219] Crucifixion is a legal punishment in the UAE. When the British-Trucial Sheikhdoms treaty expired on 1 December 1971, both emirates became fully independent. [296] Worker protests have been suppressed and protesters imprisoned without due process. This page was last edited on 17 November 2020, at 04:40. [326] Since its independence in 1971, the UAE's economy has grown by nearly 231 times to 1.45 trillion AED in 2013. Al Maainah went on to serve as the UAE ambassador to Chile and currently serves as the UAE ambassador to the Czech Republic.[65]. The Caliph Abu Bakr sent an army from the capital Medina which completed its reconquest of the territory (the Ridda Wars) with the Battle of Dibba in which 10,000 lives are thought to have been lost. Constructions nationales dans un cadre fédéral et développement forcené. The UAE has a federal court system. Note that although alcohol may be consumed, it is illegal to be intoxicated in public or drive a motor vehicle with any trace of alcohol in the blood.[365]. Those who strike may risk prison and deportation,[314][314][315] as seen in 2014 when dozens of workers were deported for striking. [328] The UAE are in the top ranks of several global indices, such as the Doing Business, the World Economic Forum's (WEF) Global Competitiveness Index (GCI), the World Happiness Report (WHR) and the Global Innovation Index (GII). On 24 January 1968, British Prime Minister Harold Wilson announced the government's decision, reaffirmed in March 1971 by Prime Minister Edward Heath, to end the treaty relationships with the seven Trucial Sheikhdoms, that had been, together with Bahrain and Qatar, under British protection. All responsibilities not granted to the national government are reserved to the individual emirate. [29] The area of the Al Ain/Buraimi Oasis was known as Tu'am and was an important trading post for camel routes between the coast and the Arabian interior. [272] Foreign nationals were also subjected to a campaign of deportations. A number of voters chose half of the members of the Federal National Council. Likewise, pork, which is haram (not permitted for Muslims), is sold in separate sections in all major supermarkets. However, the wealth of oil which the rulers could see from the revenues accruing to surrounding countries such as Iran, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and Saudi Arabia remained elusive. Following decades of maritime conflict, the coastal emirates became known as the Trucial States with the signing of the General Maritime Treaty with the British in 1820 (ratified in 1853 and again in 1892), which established the Trucial States as a British Protectorate. Thought to be Nestorian and built in 600 CE, the church appears to have been abandoned peacefully in 750 CE. One is jointly controlled by Oman and Ajman, the other by Fujairah and Sharjah. The UAE' history of trade led to the emergence of Julfar, in the present-day emirate of Ras Al Khaimah, as a regional trading and maritime hub in the area. It is a federal elective constitutional monarchy formed from a federation of seven emirates, consisting of Abu Dhabi (which serves as the capital), Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras Al Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm Al Quwain. [137] In June 2017, the UAE alongside multiple Middle Eastern and African countries cut diplomatic ties with Qatar due to allegations of Qatar being a state sponsor of terrorism, resulting in the Qatar diplomatic crisis. In the Al Hajar Mountains, temperatures are lower, a result of increased elevation. "[154], Examples of the military assets deployed include the enforcement of the no-fly-zone over Libya by sending six UAEAF F-16 and six Mirage 2000 multi-role fighter aircraft,[155] ground troop deployment in Afghanistan,[156] 30 UAEAF F-16s and ground troops deployment in Southern Yemen,[157] and helping the US launch its first airstrikes against ISIL targets in Syria.[158]. There are two areas under joint control. The FNC is restricted to a largely consultative role.[108][109][110]. […] Swan, M. (26 April 2012). Although initially small in number, the UAE armed forces have grown significantly over the years and are presently equipped with some of the most modern weapon systems, purchased from a variety of western military advanced countries, mainly France, the US and the UK. [322] Most malls in the UAE have a dress code displayed at entrances. [272][277] Amongst the foreign nationals detained, imprisoned and expelled is Iyad El-Baghdadi, a popular blogger and Twitter personality. One of the factors responsible for slower growth has been a credit crunch, which is due to, among other factors, higher interest rates. The most complicated borders were in the Al-Hajar al-Gharbi mountains, where five of the emirates contested jurisdiction over more than a dozen enclaves. Six of the emirates are on situated along the Persian Gulf, and the seventh, Fujairah is on the eastern coast of the peninsula with direct access to the Gulf of Oman. [204], Stoning is a legal punishment in the UAE. The Exclusive Agreement was signed by the Rulers of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Ras Al Khaimah and Umm Al Quwain between 6 and 8 March 1892. [195] Sharia courts have penalized domestic workers with floggings. Even though as compared to retail and property, UAE banks fared well. [377] This imbalance is due to the country's net migration rate of 21.71, the world's highest. [281] The trial ended on 10 January 2010, when Issa was cleared of the torture of Mohammed Shah Poor. It covers approximately 75 square kilometres (29 square miles) and the boundary was settled in 1969. [251][252][70][253][254][255] For example, a British woman, after she reported being gang raped by three men, was charged with the crime of "alcohol consumption". [125] The UAE also has a long and a close relationship with the UK and Germany, and many European nationals reside in the UAE. It has a coastline extending for more than 400 km (250 mi) and is divided for administrative purposes into three major regions. In 1955, the United Kingdom represented Abu Dhabi and Oman in their dispute with Saudi Arabia over the Buraimi Oasis. It was reported in 2019 that UAE's National Electronic Security Authority (NESA) has enlisted the help of American and Israeli experts in its targeting of political leaders, activists and the governments of Qatar, Turkey and Iran. [299] The British Prime Minister, David Cameron, expressed "concern" over the case and raised it with the UAE President, Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, during his 2013 state visit to the UK. Philippe DROZ-VINCENT, [15][16] Sheikh Zayed, ruler of Abu Dhabi and the first President of UAE, oversaw the development of the Emirates and steered oil revenues into healthcare, education and infrastructure. [327] Backed by the world's seventh-largest oil deposits, and thanks to considerate investments combined with decided economic liberalism and firm Government control, the UAE has seen their real GDP more than triple in the last four decades. [395] According to World Health Organisation data from 2016, 34.5% of adults in the UAE are clinically obese, with a body mass index (BMI) score of 30 or more. The active and effective military role, despite its small active personnel, has led the UAE military to be nicknamed as "Little Sparta" by United States Armed Forces Generals and former US defense secretary James Mattis. [229] Expats in Dubai have been deported for kissing in public. Emirati culture is a part of the culture of Eastern Arabia. In fact, just over eighty percent of Emirati workers hold government posts, with many of the rest taking part in state-owned enterprises such as Emirates airlines and Dubai Properties. The major challenge for the country, though, remains translating investments and strong enabling conditions into knowledge, innovation and creative outputs. [172][209][210] Abortion is illegal and punishable by a maximum penalty of 100 lashes and up to five years in prison. Avant les revenus pétroliers, la fortun […] [282] Human Rights Watch criticised the trial and called on the government to establish an independent body to investigate allegations of abuse by UAE security personnel and other persons of authority. [103] The UAE also has a virtual ministry called the Ministry of Possibilities, designed to find solutions to challenges and improve quality of life. As such, a knowledge of the language is a requirement when applying for most local jobs. In March, it struck oil in the Upper Thamama, a rock formation that would provide many valuable oil finds. He was the UAE's first president from the nation's founding until his death on 2 November 2004. [117] China and UAE are also strong international allies, with significant cooperation across economic, political and cultural lines. ), c'est au tour d'Abu Dha […] Public schools in the country are free for citizens of the UAE, while the fees for private schools vary. [70][71][72] Mindful of the protests in nearby Bahrain, in November 2012 the UAE outlawed online mockery of its own government or attempts to organise public protests through social media. [297] In its 2013 Annual Report, Amnesty International drew attention to the United Arab Emirates' poor record on a number of human rights issues. [356] The Sharjah International Book Fair is the oldest and largest in the country. "Easterner"). [160] The largest defence exhibition and conference in the Middle East, International Defence Exhibition, takes place biennially in Abu Dhabi. [256] The woman still had to serve one year in jail. Lire la suite, Dans le chapitre « Résilience du monde émergent » Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan was elected as the President of the UAE. [267][272] The report included 16 different methods of torture including severe beatings, threats with electrocution and denying access to medical care. [30], The earliest Christian site in the UAE was first discovered in the 1990s, an extensive monastic complex on what is now known as Sir Bani Yas Island and which dates back to the 7th century. The requirement is derived from Sharia law, and has been federal law since 2005. [161] The highest loss of life in the history of UAE military occurred on Friday 4 September 2015, in which 52 soldiers were killed in Marib area of central Yemen by a Tochka missile which targeted a weapons cache and caused a large explosion.[162]. The UAE was the third consecutive with two Arab nations qualifying for FIFA World Cup, and has won Gulf Cup twice. The decline of pearling resulted in extreme economic hardship in the Trucial States.[45]. Many migrant workers racked up debt and depended on the help of charities. Prior to withdrawing from the area in 1971, Britain delineated the internal borders among the seven emirates in order to preempt territorial disputes that might hamper formation of the federation. [342] The regulator, the Telecommunications Regulatory Authority, mandates filtering websites for religious, political and sexual content. It was adopted on 2 December 1971. [326] UAE is ranked as the 26th best nation in the world for doing business by the Doing Business 2017 Report published by the World Bank Group. It is about eight kilometres (5.0 miles) on a dirt track west of the town of New Madha. ; c’est le seul émirat qui soit d’un seul tenant, sans enclave. [224], Sharia courts have exclusive jurisdiction over family law cases and also have jurisdiction over several criminal cases including adultery, premarital sex, robbery, alcohol consumption and related crimes. [150], The UAE intervened in the Libyan Civil War in support of General Khalifa Haftar's Libyan National Army in its conflict with the internationally recognised Government of National Accord (GNA). [52] A 1974 agreement between Abu Dhabi and Saudi Arabia seemed to have settled the Abu Dhabi-Saudi border dispute, but this has not been ratified. [51], Meanwhile, onshore exploration was hindered by territorial disputes. [114] The UAE also ranks poorly in the annual Reporters without Borders' Press Freedom Index. [96] A percentage of revenues from each emirate is allocated to the UAE's central budget. Israël et les Emirats arabes unis vont à Washington . The first bore holes in Abu Dhabi were drilled by IPC's operating company, Petroleum Development (Trucial Coast) Ltd (PDTC) at Ras Sadr in 1950, with a 13,000-foot-deep (4,000-metre) bore hole taking a year to drill and turning out dry, at the tremendous cost at the time of £1 million. They highlighted the government's restrictive approach to freedom of speech and assembly, their use of arbitrary arrest and torture, and UAE's use of the death penalty. All nightclubs are permitted to sell alcohol. [31] It forms a rare physical link to a legacy of Christianity which is thought to have spread across the peninsula from 50 to 350 CE following trade routes. [298], In 2012, Dubai police subjected three British citizens to beatings and electric shocks after arresting them on drugs charges. The UAE has been described as the United States' best counter-terrorism ally in the Gulf by Richard A. Clarke, the US national security advisor and counter-terrorism expert. The country had already signed a military defence agreement with the U.S. in 1994 and one with France in 1995. The UAE maintains close relations with Egypt and is Egypt's largest investor from the Arab world. L’ANL est soutenue par la Russie, l’Arabie Saoudite, les Émirats arabes unis et l’Égypte. l'appli qui vous guide aux Emirats Arabes Unis. [326], UAE law does not allow trade unions to exist. By the 18th century, the Bani Yas confederation was the dominant force in most of the area now known as Abu Dhabi,[34][35][36] while the Northern Al Qawasim (Al Qasimi) dominated maritime commerce. Abu Dhabi has an area of 67,340 square kilometres (26,000 square miles), which is 86.7% of the country's total area, excluding the islands. Lire la suite, Le président américain Donald Trump annonce l’accord conclu par Israël et les Émirats arabes unis (EAU) en vue de normaliser leurs relations diplomatiques. There are six major periods of human settlement with distinctive behaviours in the UAE before Islam, which include the Hafit period from 3,200 to 2,600 BCE; the Umm Al Nar culture spanned from 2,600 to 2,000 BCE, the Wadi Suq people dominated from 2,000 to 1,300 BCE. Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm Al Quwain, and Ras Al Khaimah are connected by the E11 highway, which is the longest road in the UAE. Ces deux zones côtières sont séparées par les monts Hajar, qui culminent à 2 000 mètres, avec des falaises à pic et des vallées encaissées où la vie sédentaire est néanmoins possible. [17] The UAE's economy is the most diversified in the Gulf Cooperation Council while its most populous city of Dubai is a global city and international aviation and maritime trade hub. A further treaty was signed in 1843 and, in 1853 the Perpetual Treaty of Maritime Truce was agreed. Émirats arabes unis – Chine – États-Unis. This allows the Government to keep unemployment in the country on a very low level of less than 3%, and it also gives the Government more leeway in terms of macroeconomic policies – where other governments often need to make trade-offs between fighting unemployment and fighting inflation. [48] The tribal nature of society and the lack of definition of borders between emirates frequently led to disputes, settled either through mediation or, more rarely, force. Ses voisins sont l’Arabie saoudite au sud et à l’ouest, le Qatar au nord-ouest, le sultanat d’Oman à l’est. Le 11, Mahmoud Abbas rejette devant le Conseil de sécurité de l’ONU le plan de paix américain qui, selon lui, crée un État palestinien « fragmenté » et valide une situation d’« apartheid ». The northern emirates which include Fujairah, Ajman, Ras al-Khaimah, and Umm al-Qaiwain all have a total area of 3,881 square kilometres (1,498 square miles). [294][295], The issue of sexual abuse among female domestic workers is another area of concern, particularly given that domestic servants are not covered by the UAE labour law of 1980 or the draft labour law of 2007. [citation needed]. 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